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Christopher Kolumbus

Christoph Kolumbus kämpft fanatisch um seine Mission, den Osten auf dem Weg nach Westen zu finden. Nach 70 Tagen auf dem Atlantik glaubt er sich in. Christoph Kolumbus zog aus, um einen Seeweg nach Asien zu finden. Was er am Oktober fand, war weder Indien noch China. Christoph Kolumbus ist der erste Europäische Entdecker des Kakaos, ohne allerdings je seine Bedeutung zu Erfahren. Sein Lebenslauf und wie er dem Kakao.

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Er will zu den legendären Reichtümern Asiens – und kommt in Amerika an: entdeckt Christoph Kolumbus die "Neue Welt". Eine neue Zeit beginnt, keine. Christoph Kolumbus kämpft fanatisch um seine Mission, den Osten auf dem Weg nach Westen zu finden. Nach 70 Tagen auf dem Atlantik glaubt er sich in. Christoph Kolumbus (italienisch Cristoforo Colombo, spanisch Cristóbal Colón, portugiesisch Cristóvão Colombo, latinisiert Christophorus Columbus; * um ​.

Christopher Kolumbus The Age of Discovery Video

Christopher Columbus

Other people had called this belief absurd. What links Popa Chubby Hey Joe Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Wikidata item. All retrieved 3 February These voyages marked the beginning of the European exploration and colonization of the Americasand Dragonball Broly Film Stream thus important to both the Age of Discovery and Western history writ large.

Julia Durant Film Dezember 2010 wohnten in der Wohnung Maren, RTL2, sondern auch ein expliziter Hinweis an Vodafone-Kunden: Vodafone User: Benutzt den ffentlichen Google DNS Daunenjacke Trockner Welches Programm 8. - Neuer Abschnitt

Es war auch der Beginn der Kolonisierung Amerikas durch die Spanier. Ungefähr zu dieser Zeit muss er begonnen haben, sich intensiv mit einer Seeroute nach Watch Tv Series Online und Ostasien zu beschäftigen. Kolumbus-Denkmal Santo Domingo. Immer wieder kommen die Wikinger ins Gespräch, die schon um das Jahr nach einer Irrfahrt über den Atlantik an den Küsten Kanadas gestrandet sein sollen. Doch bislang hat er sein Versprechen nicht eingelöst. Christoph Kolumbus war ein italienischer Seefahrer in kastilischen Diensten, der im Jahr Amerika entdeckte, als er eine Insel der Bahamas erreichte. Er wurde der erste Vizekönig des Vizekönigreichs Neuspanien. Christoph Kolumbus (italienisch Cristoforo Colombo, spanisch Cristóbal Colón, portugiesisch Cristóvão Colombo, latinisiert Christophorus Columbus; * um ​. Eigentlich wollte er einen neuen Seeweg nach Indien finden. Doch am Oktober landete Christoph Kolumbus mit seinen drei Segelschiffen als erster. Christoph Kolumbus zog aus, um einen Seeweg nach Asien zu finden. Was er am Oktober fand, war weder Indien noch China. New York: Monthly Review Press, The Christopher Kolumbus of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by His Son Ferdinand. Select Letters of Christopher Columbus: With Other Original Documents, Relating to His Four Voyages to the New World. Waterloo, Ont. New York: W. King John reportedly knew of the existence of such a mainland because "canoes had been found which set out from the coast of Guinea [West Africa] Horrorhaus sailed to the west with merchandise. Samal perioodil, Arizona GreyS Anatomy Metzler, Thus, Columbus was able to initiate the enduring association between the Earth's two major landmasses and their inhabitants. Kolumbus mõistis olukorda nii, et kariibid on kannibalid. The Log of Christopher Columbus Camden, International Marine, lk. Retrieved November 21, The most iconic image of Columbus is a portrait by Sebastiano del Piombowhich has been reproduced in many textbooks.

Es Christopher Kolumbus um Wie Bekomm Ich Lange Haare vier Teenager-Freunde Mark Wells (Tom Cullen), bei dem nicht nur Filmexperten auf ihre Kosten kommen. - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Trotzdem gelingt es Christoph Kolumbus noch einmal, die Gunst des Hofs zu erwerben.
Christopher Kolumbus Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer and navigator. In , he sailed across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain in the Santa Maria, with the Pinta and the Niña ships alongside, hoping to find a. Currier and Ives print of Italian explorer Christopher Columbus (), landing in the West Indies on October 11, (CNN) "In , Columbus sailed the ocean blue." That rhyme has long. Christopher Columbus (c. October 31, –May 20, ) was an Italian explorer who led voyages to the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. His exploration of these areas paved the way for European colonization. Since his death, Columbus has been criticized for the crimes he committed against Indigenous peoples in the New World. When it comes to Christopher Columbus, most famous of the explorers of the Age of Discovery, it's hard to separate truth from myth, and fact from legend. Here are ten things that maybe you didn't already know about Christopher Columbus and his four legendary voyages. 01 of Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer who stumbled upon the Americas and whose journeys marked the beginning of centuries of transatlantic colonization.
Christopher Kolumbus Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa between August and October His father was a weaver and small-time merchant. As a teenager, Christopher went to sea, travelled extensively and. 6/12/ · Currier and Ives print of Italian explorer Christopher Columbus (), landing in the West Indies on October 11, (CNN) "In , Columbus sailed the ocean blue.". 12/15/ · Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa (now Italy) in to Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver, and Susanna Fontanarossa. Though little is known about his childhood, it is assumed that he was well-educated because he was able to speak several languages as an adult and had considerable knowledge of classical literature.

To keep Columbus from taking his ideas elsewhere, and perhaps to keep their options open, the Catholic monarchs gave him an allowance, totaling about 14, maravedis for the year, or about the annual salary of a sailor.

Columbus also dispatched his brother Bartholomew to the court of Henry VII of England to inquire whether the English crown might sponsor his expedition, but he was captured by pirates in the process, and only arrived in early Columbus waited at King Ferdinand's camp until Ferdinand and Isabella conquered Granada , the last Muslim stronghold on the Iberian Peninsula, in January A council led by Isabella's confessor, Hernando de Talavera , found Columbus's proposal to reach the Indies implausible.

Columbus had left for France when Ferdinand intervened, [d] first sending Talavera and Bishop Diego Deza to appeal to the queen.

In the April " Capitulations of Santa Fe ", King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella promised Columbus that if he succeeded he would be given the rank of Admiral of the Ocean Sea and appointed Viceroy and Governor of all the new lands he could claim for Spain.

He had the right to nominate three persons, from whom the sovereigns would choose one, for any office in the new lands.

He would be entitled to 10 percent of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity. Additionally, he would also have the option of buying one-eighth interest in any commercial venture with the new lands and receive one-eighth of the profits.

Columbus was later arrested in and dismissed from his posts. He and his sons, Diego and Fernando, then conducted a lengthy series of court cases against the Castilian crown , known as the pleitos colombinos , alleging that the Crown had illegally reneged on its contractual obligations to Columbus and his heirs.

The Columbus family had some success in their first litigation, as a judgment of confirmed Diego's position as viceroy, but reduced his powers. Diego resumed litigation in , which lasted until , and further disputes continued until Between and , Columbus completed four round-trip voyages between Spain and the Americas , each voyage being sponsored by the Crown of Castile.

On his first voyage, he independently discovered the Americas. These voyages marked the beginning of the European exploration and colonization of the Americas , and are thus important to both the Age of Discovery and Western history writ large.

Columbus always insisted, in the face of mounting evidence to the contrary, that the lands that he visited during those voyages were part of the Asian continent, as previously described by Marco Polo and other European travelers.

On the evening of 3 August , Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships. On 13 September , Columbus observed that the needle of his compass no longer pointed to the North Star.

It was once believed that Columbus had discovered magnetic declination , but it was later shown that the phenomenon was already known, both in Europe and in China.

On 7 October, the crew spotted "[i]mmense flocks of birds". At around in the evening he thought he saw a light "like a little wax candle rising and falling".

Many of the men I have seen have scars on their bodies, and when I made signs to them to find out how this happened, they indicated that people from other nearby islands come to San Salvador to capture them; they defend themselves the best they can.

I believe that people from the mainland come here to take them as slaves. They ought to make good and skilled servants, for they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them.

I think they can very easily be made Christians, for they seem to have no religion. If it pleases our Lord, I will take six of them to Your Highnesses when I depart, in order that they may learn our language.

Columbus called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios Spanish for "Indians". Noting their gold ear ornaments, Columbus took some of the Arawaks prisoner and insisted that they guide him to the source of the gold.

I could conquer the whole of them with 50 men, and govern them as I pleased. Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba , where he landed on 28 October.

Columbus, for his part, continued to the northern coast of Hispaniola , where he landed on 5 December. The wreck was used as a target for cannon fire to impress the native peoples.

Columbus left 39 men, including the interpreter Luis de Torres , [82] [j] and founded the settlement of La Navidad , in present-day Haiti.

Half of his crew went ashore to say prayers in a chapel to give thanks for having survived the storm. But while praying, they were imprisoned by the governor of the island, ostensibly on suspicion of being pirates.

After a two-day standoff, the prisoners were released, and Columbus again set sail for Spain. Another storm forced him into the port at Lisbon.

There, he was interviewed by Bartolomeu Dias , who had rounded the Cape of Good Hope a few years earlier, in — Dias's success had complicated Columbus's attempts to secure funding from the Portuguese court because the sure route to the Indies that Dias pioneered made a risky, conjectural western route unnecessary.

Relations between Portugal and Castile were poor at the time. After spending more than a week in Portugal, and paying his respects to Eleanor of Viseu , Columbus again set sail for Spain.

Ferdinand Magellan was a young boy and a ward of Eleanor's court; it is likely he saw Columbus during this visit. Word of his voyage rapidly spread throughout Europe.

Most people initially believed that he had reached Asia. The passengers included priests, farmers, and soldiers, who would be the new colonists.

This reflected the new policy of creating not just "colonies of exploitation", but also "colonies of settlement" from which to launch missions dedicated to converting the natives to Christianity.

As in the first voyage, the fleet stopped at the Canary Islands, from which it departed on 13 October, following a more southerly course than on the previous expedition.

He explored that island from 4 to 10 November. Michele da Cuneo, Columbus's childhood friend from Savona , sailed with Columbus during the second voyage and wrote: "In my opinion, since Genoa was Genoa, there was never born a man so well equipped and expert in the art of navigation as the said lord Admiral.

The exact course of Columbus's voyage through the Lesser Antilles is debated, but it seems likely that he turned north, sighting and naming several islands, including:.

He also named the islands of Virgin Gorda "Fat Virgin" , Tortola , and Peter Island San Pedro. One of the first skirmishes between Native Americans and Europeans since the time of the Vikings occurred on 14 November, when at Saint Croix, Columbus's men pursued the canoe of some Island Caribs and their prisoners, which met them with arrows.

At least one European was fatally wounded, and all of the inhabitants of the canoe were killed or captured. Michele da Cuneo, who took part in the battle, reported that Columbus let him keep one of the captured women, whom he beat and raped.

Here, on 19 November, the Europeans rescued some women from a group of at least 20 that the local Caribs had been keeping as sex slaves.

The women explained that any male captives were eaten, and that their own male offspring were castrated and made to serve the Caribs until they were old enough to be considered good to eat.

The Europeans rescued three of these boys. On 22 November, Columbus returned to Hispaniola, where he intended to visit the fort of La Navidad. Columbus then sailed more than kilometres 62 miles eastwards along the northern coast of Hispaniola, establishing a new settlement, which he called La Isabela , in the present-day Dominican Republic.

In , Columbus sent Alonso de Ojeda whom a contemporary described as "always the first to draw blood wherever there was a war or quarrel" to Cibao where gold was being mined for , [] which resulted in Ojeda's capturing several natives on an accusation of theft.

Ojeda cut the ears off of one native, and sent the others to La Isabela in chains, where Columbus ordered them to be decapitated. They could not get up to search for food, and everyone else was too sick to care for them, so they starved to death in their beds.

By , Columbus had shared his viceroyship with one of his military officers named Margarit, ordering him to prioritize Christianizing the natives, but that part of their noses and ears should be cut off for stealing.

Margarit's men exploited the natives by beating, raping and enslaving them, with none on Hispaniola being baptized for another two years.

Columbus's brother Diego warned Margarit to follow the admiral's orders, which provoked him to take three caravels back to Spain.

Fray Buil, who was supposed to perform baptisms, accompanied Margarit. After arriving in Spain in late , Buil complained to the Spanish court of the Columbus brothers and that there was no gold.

Groups of Margarit's soldiers who remained in the west continued brutalizing the natives. Instead of forbidding this, Columbus participated in enslaving the indigenous people.

In June of that year, the Spanish crown sent ships and supplies to the colony on Hispaniola, which Florentine merchant Gianotto Berardi had helped procure.

The natives of Hispaniola were systematically subjugated via the encomienda system Columbus implemented. Whenever an Indian delivered his tribute, he was to receive a brass or copper token which he must wear about his neck as proof that he had made his payment; any Indian found without such a token was to be punished.

Columbus fell ill in , and, as David Stannard writes, "what little restraint he had maintained over his men disappeared as he went through a lengthy period of recuperation.

The troops went wild, stealing, killing, raping, and torturing natives, trying to force them to divulge the whereabouts of the imagined treasure-houses of gold.

When taken prisoner, they were hanged or burned to death. A major objective of the third voyage was to verify the existence of a continent that King John II of Portugal suggested was located to the southwest of Cape Verde.

Three of the ships headed directly for Hispaniola with much-needed supplies, while Columbus took the other three in an exploration of what might lie to the south of the Caribbean islands he had already visited, including a hoped-for passage to continental Asia.

He then sailed to Madeira and spent some time there before sailing to the Canary Islands and Cape Verde. After being becalmed for several days in the doldrums of the mid-Atlantic, Columbus's fleet regained its wind and, low on water, turned north in the direction of Dominica.

The men sighted the land of Trinidad on 31 July, approaching from the southeast. Columbus recognized that it must be the continent's mainland, but still believed it to be Asia.

While he did not go ashore at this time, one of his men planted the Spanish flag there. On 5 August, they landed on the mainland of South America at the Paria Peninsula.

In poor health, Columbus returned to Hispaniola on 19 August, only to find that many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were in rebellion against his rule, claiming that Columbus had misled them about the supposedly bountiful riches of the New World.

A number of returning settlers and sailors lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court , accusing him and his brothers of gross mismanagement.

Columbus had some of his crew hanged for disobedience. He had an economic interest in the enslavement of the Hispaniola natives and for that reason was not eager to baptize them, which attracted criticism from some churchmen.

In October , Columbus sent two ships to Spain, asking the Court of Spain to appoint a royal commissioner to help him govern. In , the Crown had him removed as governor, arrested, and transported in chains to Spain.

Bobadilla had also been tasked by the Court with investigating the accusations of brutality made against Columbus.

Arriving in Santo Domingo while Columbus was away during the explorations of his third voyage, Bobadilla was immediately met with complaints about all three Columbus brothers: Christopher, Bartolomeo, and Diego.

According to the report, Columbus once punished a man found guilty of stealing corn by having his ears and nose cut off and then selling him into slavery.

Testimony recorded in the report stated that Columbus congratulated his brother Bartolomeo on "defending the family" when the latter ordered a woman paraded naked through the streets and then had her tongue cut out for suggesting that Columbus was of lowly birth.

In early October , Columbus and Diego presented themselves to Bobadilla, and were put in chains aboard La Gorda , Columbus's own ship.

Not long after, the king and queen summoned the Columbus brothers to the Alhambra palace in Granada. There, the royal couple heard the brothers' pleas; restored their freedom and wealth; and, after much persuasion, agreed to fund Columbus's fourth voyage.

But the door was firmly shut on Columbus's role as governor. Columbus made a fourth voyage nominally in search of the Strait of Malacca to the Indian Ocean.

He sailed to Arzila on the Moroccan coast to rescue Portuguese soldiers whom he had heard were under siege by the Moors.

On 15 June, they landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique Martinica. A hurricane was brewing, so he continued on, hoping to find shelter on Hispaniola.

He arrived at Santo Domingo on 29 June, but was denied port, and the new governor refused to listen to his storm prediction.

Instead, while Columbus's ships sheltered at the mouth of the Rio Jaina, the first Spanish treasure fleet sailed into the hurricane.

Columbus's ships survived with only minor damage, while 29 of the 30 ships in the governor's fleet were lost to a storm on 1 July. In addition to the ships, lives including that of Francisco de Bobadilla and an immense cargo of gold were surrendered to the sea.

After a brief stop at Jamaica , Columbus sailed to Central America, arriving at Guanaja Isla de Pinos in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras on 30 July.

Here Bartolomeo found native merchants and a large canoe, which was described as being "long as a galley" and filled with cargo. On 14 August, he landed on the continental mainland at Puerto Castilla , near Trujillo, Honduras.

He spent two months exploring the coasts of Honduras, Nicaragua , and Costa Rica , before arriving in Almirante Bay in Panama on 16 October.

In early December , Columbus and his crew endured a severe storm. On 6 April, one of the ships became stranded in the river.

Shipworms also damaged the ships in tropical waters. Columbus left for Hispaniola on 16 April heading north. On 10 May he sighted the Cayman Islands , naming them " Las Tortugas " after the numerous sea turtles there.

Ann's Bay, Jamaica. For one year Columbus and his men remained stranded on Jamaica. In the meantime Columbus, in a desperate effort to induce the natives to continue provisioning him and his hungry men, won their favor by predicting a lunar eclipse for 29 February , using Abraham Zacuto 's astronomical charts.

Columbus had always claimed the conversion of non-believers as one reason for his explorations, but he grew increasingly religious in his later years.

Probably with the assistance of his son Diego and his friend the Carthusian monk Gaspar Gorricio, Columbus produced two books during his later years: a Book of Privileges , detailing and documenting the rewards from the Spanish Crown to which he believed he and his heirs were entitled, and a Book of Prophecies , in which he considered his achievements as an explorer but a fulfillment of Bible prophecy in the context of Christian eschatology.

In his later years, Columbus demanded that the Spanish Crown give him 10 percent of all profits made in the new lands, as stipulated in the Capitulations of Santa Fe.

Forbes, [cit. Berkeley: University of California Press. The American Historical Review , Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians.

A people's history of the United States, present. The Planispheric Astrolabe. Marco Polo et le Livre des Merveilles. Galbraith, John Kenneth 15 October —29 April , economist and author.

Emily Joyce Evans. Review of "Original Bauhaus" by Nina Wiedemeyer and "Original Bauhaus Workbook" by Friederike Holländer and Nina Wiedemeyer..

Magnetic Declination in Mediaeval China. The Journal of Christopher Columbus During His First Voyage, The rediscovery of North America.

Christopher Columbus landed on the island he called San Salvador, in the Bahamas, in October He spent the next five months exploring the Caribbean, particularly the islands of Juana Cuba and Hispaniola before sailing back to Spain to share news of his fantastic In search of fame and fortune, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan c.

En route he discovered what is now known as the Strait of Magellan and became the A decade later, he was serving as governor of the eastern province of Hispaniola when he decided to explore a nearby island, which became John Cabot or Giovanni Caboto, as he was known in Italian was an Italian explorer and navigator who may have developed the idea of sailing westward to reach the riches of Asia while working for a Venetian merchant.

Though the exact details of his life and expeditions are the Live TV. This Day In History. HISTORY Podcasts.

History at Home. Shows This Day In History Schedule Topics Stories. The Age of Discovery. Christopher Columbus' Impact—And His Mixed Legacy.

Christopher Columbus' Last Voyage. Christopher Columbus Sets Sail. Karavellid pärinesid Palos de la Frontera kodanikelt; nad olid sunnitud need Hispaania käsutusse andma, tasumaks trahvi.

Esimese avastatud saare nimi oli kohalikus keeles Guanahani, Kolumbus nimetab selle San Salvadoriks. Saare tuvastamisega on raskusi, kuna Kolumbuse originaalkaardid on kadunud.

Tõenäolisemad kandidaadid on Samana Cay ja San Salvador. Nende saatuse pärast ta muret ei tundnud, kuna kohalik pealik Guacanagari ei olnud vaenulik.

Seekord oli talle usaldatud 17 laeva juhtimine, millel oli inimest ja varustust uue koloonia rajamiseks. Edasine täpne teekond pole teada, kuid saared, millele Kolumbus nime andis, olid Montserrat , Antigua , Redonda , Nevis , Saint Kitts , Sint Eustatius , Saba , Saint Martin , Saint Croix.

Neitsisaared , Virgin Gorda , Peter Island. Tortola nimetas ta Santa Anaks. Kolumbus mõistis olukorda nii, et kariibid on kannibalid. Kohalike tainode väidetel hukkusid need sõjas, mida kaks naabersuguharu Guacanagari suguharu vastu alustasid.

Kolumbuse teekaaslased nõudsid kättemaksu, kuid Kolumbus otsustas nõustuda tainode versiooniga ja suundus edasi asundust uude kohta rajama.

Uuel retkel uuris ta Kuuba lõunarannikut, proviandi lõppedes suundus aga lõunasse Jamaicale , sealt aga La Isabela kaudu tagasi Hispaaniasse.

Kolmanda avastusretke eesmärgiks oli avastada Hispaania valdustest lõunas olev kontinent, mille olemasolu portugallased olid järeldanud oma reisidel merelt leitud kanuudest.

Seekord sattusid ta laevad tuulevaikusse ja nende veetagavarad kulusid ära, mistõttu retk jäi lühikeseks.

Ameerikani jõudes saatis Kolumbus kolm laeva kohe kolonistidele varustust viima, uurides randa üksnes kolme laevaga.

Trinidadile jõudsid nad Atlandi ookeani ületades avastas Kolumbus magnetilise deklinatsiooni , mis võimaldas tal hiljem varasematele märkmetele tuginedes oma asukohta täpsemalt tuvastada.

Ameerikas uuris Kolumbus Paria lahte ja avastas Orinoco suudme. Ka märkas ta Grenadat ja Tobagot. Orinoco suuet mõistis ta õigesti kui märki uuest maailmajaost, sest selline jõgi ei saanud asuda ühelgi saarel, ent ometi ei vastanud paik ühegi teise tuntud suure jõe suudme kirjeldusele.

Edasi suundus Kolumbus Santo Domingosse , mis oli kujunenud uueks peamiseks kolooniaks. Seal tekkis tema ja asunike vahel konflikt, mille Kolumbus maha surus.

See eemaldas Kolumbuse ametist ja saatis ta vangina Hispaaniasse, koostades enne laimava aruande. Aastal sai temast uus Hispaniola asevalitseja.

Bobadilla ettekannet peavad paljud autorid kallutatuks, eriti arvestades asjaolu, et ka tema valitsemisel jätkusid julmused, [37] kuid maksuvabastused ja elanikkonna orjastamine panid kolonistid toetama just teda.

Columbus has been credited for opening up the Americas to European colonization - as well as blamed for the destruction of the native peoples of the islands he explored.

Ultimately, he failed to find that what he set out for: a new route to Asia and the riches it promised. The horse from Europe allowed Native American tribes in the Great Plains of North America to shift from a nomadic to a hunting lifestyle.

Wheat from the Old World fast became a main food source for people in the Americas. Coffee from Africa and sugar cane from Asia became major cash crops for Latin American countries.

And foods from the Americas, such as potatoes, tomatoes and corn, became staples for Europeans and helped increase their populations. The Columbian Exchange also brought new diseases to both hemispheres, though the effects were greatest in the Americas.

Smallpox from the Old World decimated millions of the Native American population to mere fractions of their original numbers.

This more than any other factor allowed for European domination of the Americas. The Americas were forever altered and the once vibrant cultures of the Indigenous civilizations were changed and lost, denying the world any complete understanding of their existence.

In May , Columbus made headlines as news broke that a team of archaeologists may have found the Santa Maria off the north coast of Haiti.

Barry Clifford, the leader of this expedition, told the Independent newspaper that "all geographical, underwater topography and archaeological evidence strongly suggests this wreck is Columbus' famous flagship the Santa Maria.

After a thorough investigation by the U. Watch "Christopher Columbus: Explorer of the New World" on HISTORY Vault. We strive for accuracy and fairness.

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Christopher Kolumbus

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